What is Stock Market?


by Sandip Das on 8 April 2024,  4 min read


The stock market, often referred to as the share market, is an institution where traders and stockbrokers engage in the buying and selling of various financial instruments. These include stocks, bonds, and securities. In India, this marketplace is governed by two major exchanges: the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE).

History of Stock Market

Delving into its history, the Bombay Stock Exchange stands as the oldest in Asia and ranks among the top ten oldest stock exchanges globally. Boasting a market capitalisation exceeding $4.5 trillion as of January 2024, the BSE holds a prominent position in the financial world.

Role of Stock Market

These exchanges play a pivotal role in facilitating the raising of capital by companies through the issuance of shares and corporate bonds. Simultaneously, they offer investors the opportunity to partake in the financial success of these companies, either through capital gains from increasing stock prices or through dividends distributed by the companies.

Trading occurs via an open electronic limit order book system, where computers match buy and sell orders anonymously. The benchmark indices, such as the Sensex and the Nifty, gauge the performance of the market by tracking the stocks of the largest and most capitalised companies.

Benefits of Investing in Stock Market

Investing in the stock market offers a multitude of benefits. Firstly, there’s the potential for capital appreciation, as stock prices have historically shown long-term growth. Additionally, some stocks provide regular income through dividends, attracting income-oriented investors. 

Diversification across various sectors and industries helps mitigate risk, while the liquidity of stocks allows for easy buying and selling, affording investors flexibility in their strategies.

Moreover, investing in stocks grants ownership in companies, providing shareholders with voting rights and the opportunity to influence strategic decisions.

Shareholders historically have wielded their power to challenge management decisions they deem unreasonable, showcasing the importance of shareholder participation in corporate governance.


In essence, the stock market serves as a dynamic arena where companies raise funds, investors seek opportunities for growth and income, and ownership rights are exercised to shape the direction of businesses. It’s a realm where financial aspirations intersect with corporate ambitions, making it a cornerstone of the global economy.

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